Inherit the Wind
(Drama) ( 1960)
© 2005 by Raymond Weschler
Henry Drummund (Clarence Darrow*).................Spencer Tracy
A famous lawyer from Chicago who agrees to defend Bertram Cates from charges
of breaking a law that prohibits the teaching of the theory of evolution.
Mathew Harrison Brady (William Jennings Bryan*).....Fredric March
An old friend of Drummonds, a famous politician, a former Secretary
of State, and a lawyer, who agrees to help prosecute Cates.
E.K. Hornbeck (H.L. Mencken*).......................Gene Kelly
A famous, cynical and anti-religious writer from Baltimore who comes
to cover Cates trial for his newspaper, The Baltimore Herald.
Bertram T. Cates (John T. Scopes*)..................Dick York
A high school science teacher in the small town of Hillsboro, Tennessee,
who is arrested for teaching Charles Darwins theory of evolution.
The Judge...........................................Henry Morgan
The judge in Cates trial.
Rachel Brown........................................Donna Andersen
Cates innocent fiancée, who is caught between the science teacher
she loves and her extremely conservative and religious father.
Reverend Jeremiah Brown.............................Claude Atkins
Rachels father, and a "hellfire" preacher who believes that every word in the bible
is literally true and that anybody who denies its truth will burn in hell forever.
Mrs. Sarah Brady.....................................Florence Eldridge
Matthew Harrison Bradys loving and loyal wife, who used to
be friends with her husbands legal opponent, Henry Drummond.
This film is Hollywoods portrayal of the world famous "Scopes Monkey Trial," which
took place in the small town of Dayton, Tennessee, in the hot and humid summer of 1925.
Note that the names of the major characters were changed for the movie, and thus the
names with asterisks (*) are the real name of the people that came to capture the
attention of all America during that historic event.
The trial is a classic American battle between the forces of conservative small
town religion and the liberal world of secular (non-religious) science. In 1925,
the southern state of Tennessee made it a crime to teach Charles Darwins theory of
evolution in the public schools. This is the theory that humans descended from apes
over millions of years. Fundamentalist conservative Christians feared this idea,
since many of them believe the Bible implies that the earth is only 6,000 years old,
and regardless,they believe God created man in the day or two immediately after creating
all of the other animals.
In the film, the high school science teacher Bertram Cates is arrested for teaching
this theory, and within days, two of the most famous lawyers in the country arrive
in the small town of HillsboroOne (Drummond) to defend him, and the other (Brady)
to help prosecute him. Drummond is accompanied by the famous liberal writer E.K.
Hornbeck, who has a strong distaste for religious intolerance and wants the whole world
to know of the states stupidity for prosecuting Cates. Brady is accompanied by his wife
Sarah, who has known Drummond as a friend for most of their adult lives.
The man caught in the middle is Cates himself, who quickly realizes that although all
he wanted to do was open up his students minds, he was now a historic story for the
press and a political cause for his lawyer. Even worse, he must face the tragedy of
his fiancée Rachel, who is caught herself between Cates and her own father, an angry
and very conservative Protestant Reverend who is convinced that his future son-in-law
is a friend of the devil himself. For everyone involved, the trial and the issues that
it raises are a tragedy, and reflective of the type of cultural tensions that continue
in the United States to this very day.
A quick note on this movie and the real Scopes trial: Although the issues that the real
trial of 1925 raised are nicely dealt with in this film, historians have noted for
years that Hollywoods portrayal of the characters involved in the actual events is
often far from accurate. Most obvious is the unfair depiction of Matthew Harrison Brady
(William Jennings Bryan in real life), who is portrayed as a somewhat clownish and
fanatical Christian who wanted to make Cates (Scopes in real life) pay for his crime
of teaching evolution. In reality, Bryan was not interested in punishing Scopes, but
merely interested in protecting the law, which he saw as protecting his religion.
Regardless, the real William Jennings Bryan was probably a much more moderate person
than the Brady in this film, and in fact throughout his political life, Bryan was
considered quite liberal.
Some Words and Expressions that You May not Know
The cultural war between science and religion arrives in Hillsboro as
Bertram Cates, high school teacher, is arrested for teaching evolution.
Give me that old-time religion! [song]
Very traditional religious practices that go back generations.
We will continue our discussion of Darwins theory of the descent of man.
The theory or belief of the 19th century English biologist Charles Darwin,
that man descended or evolved from apes over millions of years.
From the first wiggly protozoa in the sea...to the ape, and finally to man.
"To wiggle" is to move quickly back and forth, like a snake. A "protozoa"
is a tiny one-celled animal, and one of the simplest forms of life.
Come off it, Sam, youve known me all my life.
An excellent expression, which is a way of telling a person to
be serious after they have said something you think is nonsense.
Youre charged with violation of public act 3142, volume 37, statute number 314 of
the state code, which makes it unlawful for any teacher of the public schools...
"To violate" a law is to break it, and the "public acts" and "statutes" of
a state are its laws." Finally , the "code" of a state refers to all the
laws the state has, brought together in one book or series of books.
...to teach any theory which denies the creation of man as taught in the Bible.
A guess or belief, generally based on analysis and scientific evidence.
I hereby place you under arrest.
"Hereby" is an old word meaning "by this way or means." If a person is
placed "under arrest," they are usually stopped, taken to jail by the
police and charged with a crime.
Heavenly Hillsboro! Does it have a hole in its head or its head in a hole?
Note that if a person (or city) has a "hole in its head," theyre crazy
or stupid, but if they have their "head in a hole," theyre probably hiding
from something (in this case from the progress of science).
Let them laugh; Were fighting the Lords battle, arent we Reverend?
The "Lord" is a Christian word for God, and a "battle" is a fight
or military struggle, often in a war. A "reverend" is a religious
official in the Protestant branch of the Christian church.
Id rather have some heathen laughing at me
than have my son laughing at the Bible.
A "heathen" is a negative word for a person who does not believe in
one of the traditional religions, especially Christianity or Judaism.
They smite him and they spat upon him and he turned to them his other cheek.
"To smite" is an old religious verb meaning to hit or strike hard. Note that
"spat" is the past tense of "spit" (to expel water or saliva from the mouth).
This is a description of what happened to Jesus, who would never fight.
Tom, youre prosecuting attorney. Isnt there something we can do?
The lawyer who is responsible for trying to convict accused criminals.
I hardly think it ethical for me to express my opinion.
An important word meaning moral (that which is considered right).
What do we care what a bunch of foreigners and city slickers think?
A funny expression that refers to people who live in big cities
(A "slick" person can manipulate or fool people with language).
How long since you sold a pound of grits to some smart-aleck from New York?
"Grits" is a type of grain or cereal that is popular in the American South.
A "smart-aleck" is a person who thinks they are smart and often talks in
a way that is offensive or annoying.
Heaven has chosen us to light the way for
others, back to the shepherd, back to the fold.
Religious words from the Bible. A "shepherd" takes care of sheep,
and in this case, "the fold" refers to Jesus and (the Christian) God.
As mayor of Hillsboro, I uphold the laws of this community,
no matter how it may effect my political future.
"To uphold" a law is to enforce it, or make sure people obey it.
I shall ignore these slanders, like water off a ducks back.
A "slander" is a public statement that accuses a person of something
that in fact is not true, which can therefore harms their reputation.
Youve been a lousy mayor!
A good alternative word to bad or shitty.
Are you aware that the great universities throughout this country will
consider student applicants from this state ineligible because of this law?
An "applicant" is a person who applies for a job or position (in this case
to be a student). If a person is "ineligible" for something, they are not
qualified to get it.
I dont know whose idea it was to hang a shingle on Hillsboro
spelling HorsenBuggy, but as for me, I wont invest in antiquity.
A "shingle" is a small sign often announcing the nature of a business.
"Horsenbuggy" refers to the horse-drawn carriages that were the way people
got around before cars. "To invest" in something is to put money or time into
it, and "antiquity" refers to the very old or ancient world.
I may want my son to go to Yale.
A famous and excellent university in the state of Connecticut.
Now I believe in a basic fundamentalist interpretation
of the Bible, but we cant close our eyes to all progress.
A belief that the words of the Bible are all literally true.
This will put Hillsboro on the map of this country!
To put a small town "on the map" is to make it famous or well known.
When he spoke, a tent pole shook!
A "tent" is a temporary shelter made of fabric, and a "pole"
is a round or cylinder shaped stick (In small towns, religious
meetings are often held in very large tents).
Youre a popular fellow.
Another word for guy.
Tell them if they let my body out of jail, Id lock up my mind?
...Could you stand that, Rachel? :: At least wed be together.
"To lock up" a person is to put them in jail or confine them to a
small space. A persons mind is the part of their brain that allows them
to think. "To stand" something is to accept it (More commonly, if you
" cant stand it," this means you hate it.
Wow, so this is where the fate of learning
will be decided for the next 10,000 years!
"Wow" is an excellent little filler word that shows emotion such as
happiness or surprise. A persons "fate" is their future, from which
they cant escape.
Dont worry, Im not the serpent. This isnt from the tree of knowledge.
A "serpent" is a snake. In the Bible, "the tree of knowledge" is a
fruit tree that God says must not be touched, but the first humans
(Adam and Eve) decided to eat from it. Lots of problems followed!
Martyrs always have a point to prove and
so do you, but you havent won your halo yet.
A "martyr" is a person who is killed or greatly hurt while trying to
do something good for somebody else. If you have a "point to prove," you
are trying to show that what you believe is true. A "halo" is a circular ring
of light or particles around the head of a person that makes them appear like
they are an angel or a symbol of goodness.
That wont come until theyve tossed you into the arena with the lions.
"To toss" something is to throw it, and an "arena" is a big stadium
for public events like concerts or plays (During the Roman Empire,
Christians were fed to the lions in public arenas).
A teacher is a public servant; He should do
what the school board and law want him to.
A "public servant" is a complimentary expression for a person who
works for the government. A "school board" is a group of citizens
who decide how the local schools should be run.
Has the accused anything to say in his own defense?
In a trial, "the accused" is the person who is charged with a crime.
Waste baskets for ideas on sale in the outer lobby.
A "waste basket" is a small trash can, and the "outer lobby" of a
building is the area where people often gather to sit and talk, or
perhaps check in if its a hotel. This is Hornbecks way of saying
the people of Hillsboro refuse to accept new ideas.
I dont see anything funny in this Mr. Hornbeck.
:: Objection sustained, either do I.
In a trial, if a lawyer says he has an "objection" to what is said,
they are saying it is irrelevant or not permitted, and should not be
considered by the jury. If an objection is "sustained," the judge agrees that
the objected to words should be removed from the trial record and ignored
by the jury.
You newspaper people have stirred up enough trouble for Bert.
"To stir up" trouble is to intentionally cause problems
or trouble, often by trying to emotionally upset people.
I came to tell boy Socrates here that the Baltimore Herald
is opposed to hemlock, and we will provide a lawyer.
Socrates was a famous ancient Greek philosopher who was famous for
angering the powerful by constantly asking troubling questions. The
Baltimore Herald is the newspaper Hornbeck works for, and "hemlock" is a
type of poison that Socrates was forced to drink as punishment. In this
case, "to provide" a lawyer is to pay for him.
Whats the difference?; An old lawyer with
new tricks, a new lawyer with old tricks.
In this context, a "trick" is a smart or clever way in which a lawyer
can use the law to their advantage, even if the law was not originally
intended to be used that way.
Wake up, Copernicus. The law is still on the side of the
lawmakers and everything revolves around their terra firma.
Copernicus was a famous Polish astronomer who claimed that the sun is
the center of the universe, and not the earth (This claim was bitterly
fought by the Catholic Church after he made it in 1543). "To revolve"
around something is to circle around it (Terra firma is Latin for the
earth or the ground).
I know the sunrise is an optical illusion.
An interesting expression for something that appears to be what it
really isnt (i.e...it looks like the sun is going around or revolving around
the earth when the sun rises, but as we know, it is the earth that revolves
around the sun).
You seem so...cynical! :: True, thats part of my fascination.
If a person is "cynical," they question what they are told and often do
not believe the claims of others, especially of religions, governments
and their representatives. A persons "fascination" with something is
their extreme interest in it.
Im admired for my detestability.
"To admire" a person is to respect or like them. "To detest" a person
is to hate them with great emotion (though destestability is rarely
if ever used).
Dont worry. I may be rancid butter, but Im on your side of the bread.
If food is "rancid," it is spoiled or rotten and smells horrible. This
is Hornbecks way of telling Rachel that he may be unpleasant, but he
is supporting Cates in the trial.
Hillsboro welcomes Matthew Brady as a defender of God, while
attorney Henry Drummund, with the help of The Baltimore Herald,
prepares to fight for Bertram T. Cates and the progress of science.
As mayor of Hillsboro, may I say this municipality is proud to have
within its city limits those who have always fought for us ordinary people...
A "municipality" is a legal word for a city or urban area.
In this context, "ordinary" means common or simple.
....for the lady folk of this town would not have had the vote
if you had not been fighting to give them that suffrage!
"Suffrage" is a legal word for the right to vote.
Mr. Wilson would not have gotten to the White House and
won the war if you had not been his Secretary of State!
In the US government, the "Secretary of State" is responsible for US
relations with other countries (In most countries, this person is usually
called the Foreign Minister). Note that William Jennings Bryan was
President Wilsons Secretary of Sate during World War 1.
The governor of our glorious state has vested in me the authority to
confer upon you the commission of honorary colonel in the state militia!
A "governor" is the highest level person in a state government. "To
vest authority" in a person is to give them the power to do something.
"To confer" upon a person is to give them something, and in this
context, a "commission" is an appointed position. If a position is
"honorary," it is given as an honor (and not because the position has
actually been earned). "Colonel" is a high level in the US military.
The "state militia" is the military branch of the state government that
is mainly used to keep order in times of emergency or crisis (Today it
is usually referred to as a states National Guard).
Mrs. Brady and I are delighted to be among you!
To be "delighted is to be very happy.
We all voted for you, three times. :: I
trust it was in three separate elections!
A clever exchange in which Brady, who ran for President three times, is
referring to the corruption of some places in which a person is able to
illegally vote for the same person more than once.
Who may I ask is the spiritual leader for this community?
A way of referring to a religious leader, such as a priest or reverend.
It is not merely to prosecute a law breaker, a young
man who has spoken out against the revealed word.
For fundamentalist or very conservative Christians, "the revealed word" are the
words of the Bible ("To reveal" something is to show it or announce it to others).
What has happened in the school room of your town has
unloosed a wicked attack from the big cities of the North.
"To unloose" something is let it free, and "wicked" is a
powerful adjective that means evil or morally horrible.
We did not seek this struggle. We are simple folk,
who seek only to live in brotherhood and peace.
"To seek" something is to intentionally look for it. "Brotherhood"
is the state of living as brothers, in peace with others.
To cherish our loved ones and to teach our
children the ways of righteousness in the Lord.
"To cherish" a person is to deeply love or admire them. A "loved
one" is generally a close family member or friend you love dearly.
"Righteousness" is the state of being moral, or acting morally correct.
These idolaters, these priests of evolution...if man believes
he is descended from the beast, he must remain a beast!
An "idolater" worships or believes in false Gods. A "priest" is a religious
leader in the Catholic Church. If man "descended" from apes, his distant
ancestors were apes. A "beast" is a negative word for an animal.
These innocent ones, corrupted and despairing
of salvation, will turn upon their fathers!
If a person is "corrupted," their values have been hurt by a negative influence,
such as greed for money. "To despair" is to feel desperate or horribly frustrated,
and in this case, "salvation" is the Christian belief that your soul will be
saved and you will go to heaven only if you accept Jesus as your God.
"To turn upon" a person is to suddenly fight or struggle against them.
The pestilence of fire and hatred and death!
"Pestilence is a destructive force.
The most gifted reporter in America today, myself, and the
most agile legal mind of the 20th century, Henry Drummond.
If a person is "gifted," they are extremely talented or skilled.
If a mans mind is "agile," it is very smart and can quickly adapt
to new situations.
If the enemy sends us Goliath in the battle, it magnifies our cause!
Goliath is the name of a giant that tries to kill David in the biblical story
of David and Goliath. "To magnify" something is to make it appear much bigger
than it really is, and a political "cause" is a movement for a particular
principle or belief, such as civil rights or freedom of religion.
When he fights, headlines follow!
The large print article titles that are found in newspapers.
If St. George had killed a dragonfly instead
of a dragon, who wouldve recommended him?
A "dragonfly" is a small insect and a "dragon" is a huge fire-breathing
monster (St. George is a prince in an old British fairly tale).
We here in Hillsboro have the opportunity to slay
not only the devils disciple but the devil himself!
"To slay" a person is kill them violently, often with a knife or sword.
A persons "disciple" is somebody who truly believes in them and spends
time telling others of their greatness.
Rachel, I made supper for you.
An old word for dinner.
Thank God that the sinner stands naked and exposed! :: Stop preaching, pa!
A "sinner" is a person who does acts that God prohibits (such as murder and
stealing). "To preach" is to lecture or speak to others on religious subjects,
often about what God thinks is right. "Pa" is a very dated word for dad or father.
Im not leaving Bert! :: That is the love of Judas!
This man has nothing to offer you but sin!
Judas was one of Jesus closest apostles or friends, who turned
against him. "Sin" is an act of which God disapproves.
Why is he bringing Henry Drummond here to spew his
atheistic filth into the ears of our people?
"To spew" is to spray or spit out with great force or energy.
An "atheist" is a person who does not believe in God, and "filth"
is horrible dirtiness or more generally, corruption and evil.
You know how easy it is to mold minds for good or to twist them for evil.
"To mold" something is to shape it in a certain way, and "to twist" something
is to turn or tie it under pressure, or more generally, to corrupt or distort
a persons thoughts or beliefs.
Hes infected with the poison of his agnosticism!
"To infect" a person is to give them a disease, and "agnosticism"
is the belief that one cannot know if there is a God.
You have betrayed your faith!
"To betray" a person is to greatly hurt them by working for their
enemy or tricking them. In this case, a persons "faith" is their religion.
I shall sprinkle clean water upon you if you shall be clean...and
from all your filthiness and from your idols shall I cleanse you.
"To sprinkle" is to gently spray little drops of water. "To cleanse"
a person is to clean them, in this case from the sin of other religions.
Heavenly Hillsboro, the buckle on the Bible belt.
A "buckle" is the metal part of a belt that keeps it closed together in front.
"The Bible Belt" still refers to the Southern states in the US (from Texas to
Virginia), where conservative Christians are still very influential.
Were sharing a room at Mansion House, like everything else here, misnamed.
A "mansion" is an extremely big house for rich people, and if something is
"misnamed," it has a name that does not make sense or truly describe it
(i.e....the Mansion House in Hillsboro is actually quite small).
Which is hungrier? My stomach or my soul?
A persons "soul" is the non-physical or spiritual part of
them that lives on after they die (at least in theory!)
Are you an evolutionist? An infidel? A sinner?
An "infidel" is a person who is not faithful, in this case to their religion.
You, Sir, must be a man of God. :: No, no, ulcers.
A painful break in the lining of the stomach, often caused by stress.
Ladies and gentleman, devolution is not a theory
but a cold fact...the ape devolved from man.
"To devolve" is the opposite of evolve, but its rarely used.
Now you take a look at this creature sitting here.
A "creature" is another word for animal or beast.
Before you is an example of the ungrace to which
man can fall because of his own bestiality!
"Bestiality" is uncivilized or animallike behavior.
Look at those beaten brows, those shifting eyes.
If eyes "shift," they move around a lot, perhaps suspiciously.
As sure as the good Lord cast out Satan from hell,
so did he devolve this poor beast from man.
"To cast out" a person is to throw them out. "Satan" is
another common word for the devil, or an evil being.
Theyre all the wages of sin, my friends!
A biblical expression which means the cost of doing something immoral
of which God would disapprove ("Wages" refers to a workers salary).
Look and beware! I thank you, your contributions will be gratefully received.
"Beware" is a way of telling a person to be careful, since there is danger near.
In this case, a "contribution" is a voluntary donation of money.
Have you come to testify for the prosecution or the defense?
"To testify" is to officially answer questions at a trial. At a criminal trial,
the "prosecution" is the state attorney who tries to convict the accused criminal
of a crime, and "the defense" is the lawyer for the person accused of a crime,
who is often called the defendant.
Tensions and the temperature rise as
the trial of the century begins...
This isnt my mission, Mr. Henry.
A persons "mission" is their goal, or something they want to accomplish.
Theyre pretty hard, arent they? :: Their messiah arrived yesterday.
A "messiah" is a religious savior, such as Jesus.
Why dont you give your ulcers a break and go home?
In this context, to "give a break" to someone
(or something) is to allow them to rest.
Just plain folks, second generation.
Another expression for the common people.
We all like Mr. Cates very much and we hope you do right by him.
To "do right by" a person is an old-fashioned
way of saying to treat them well, or with respect.
Its good to see you; I only wish it were under different circumstances.
An important word that refers to the facts or details of a situation.
Sara, you look lovelier than ever.
"Lovely" is a nice British word for pretty or attractive.
Yes, youth appeals to me these days.
If something "appeals" to you, it attracts you.
Ill take up your bags, counselor.
An old-fashioned but still used way of referring to a lawyer.
Very biased reporting, I must say.
If reporting is "biased," it unfairly favors one side of a story over the other.
Its the duty of a newspaper to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable.
"To comfort" a person is to try and make them feel safe and secure. If a
person is "afflicted," they are deeply troubled or tormented (and "to afflict
a person is to trouble or disturb them).
Mr. Drummond, let me assure you that while we may not
agree with your ideas, we respect your right to voice them.
"To voice" an opinion is to state it publicly.
Twice he campaigned for me when I ran for President.
"To campaign" for a politician is to go out and try to get people to vote for them.
If we can desist with the taking of photographs for the time being.
"To desist" from doing something is to stop doing it.
Is the defense ready to proceed with the selection
of the next juror? :: The defense is ready, your honor.
"To proceed" is to move forward, especially after taking a break. A "juror" is a
member of the jury, a group of citizens who decide at a trial if a person is
innocent or guilty. "Your honor" is how a judge is always addressed in a court room.
Order in the court! And I want to warn the spectators that that
the court will not tolerate any undue disturbance at any time.
"Order in the court" is a way for a judge to tell everyone in the courtroom to
be quiet. A "spectator" is a person who watches what is going on at an event
(in this case, a trial). "To tolerate" something is to accept it, and if
something is "undue" it is unwanted or too much. A "disturbance" is something
that disturbs or bothers (such as unwanted noise).
The high priest of mumbo jumbo, Matthew Brady, has alternately been stuffing
himself with fried chicken and belching platitudes since his arrival here.
A "high priest" is a leader or symbol of a political or religious movement.
"Mumbo jumbo" is an excellent way of referring to nonsense. "To stuff oneself"
is to eat a lot of food, and "to belch" is to burp. "Platitudes" are silly,
banal or overused remarks, often said for no particular reason.
Will the court entertain a motion on a matter of
procedure? :: Will the prosecution state the motion?
In a courtroom, "the court" means the judge! In a legal context, "to entertain
a motion" is to consider an official request by a lawyer, and a matter of
"procedure" refers to how the trial is run or conducted, and not to a specific
question of law or fact.
It has been called to my attention that the temperature
in this courtroom is now 97 degrees Fahrenheit.
The measure of temperature used in the US (as opposed to Celsius).
I do not think the dignity of this court will suffer
if we remove a few superfluous outer garments.
If something is "superfluous," it is unnecessary.
A "garment" is an article of clothing.
Is the counsel for the defense showing us the latest
fashion from the great metropolitan city of Chicago?
Another word for a lawyer.
It just so happens I bought these in your home
town, Mr. Brady. Weeping Water, Nebraska.
"It so happens" is a way implying that what you are about to say may be of
particular interest to the listener. Nebraska is a lightly populated state
in the middle of the country.
I believe in the holy word of God, and I believe in Matthew Harrison Brady.
For Christians, "the holy word" refers to the words of the Bible.
I object to the defense attorney rejecting your worthy
citizen, without so much as asking him a question.
A "worthy citizen" is an honorable or admirable member of the community.
Note that when lawyers decide who gets to be on the jury in a trial, they
can reject any person, without even giving a reason.
Your honor, I object to the note of levity that the counsel
for the defense is introducing into these proceedings.
"Levity" is a sense of lightness or even humor. "Proceedings" refers
to any official event or happening, such as a trial or meeting.
I object to all this Colonel Brady talk.
A "colonel" is a high ranking officer in the military.
The use of the title prejudices the case of my client and calls up a picture of
the prosecution astride a white horse, ablaze in the uniform of a military colonel...
"To prejudice" a persons legal case is to hurt it by making a jury more likely
to be hostile or biased. "Astride" is a fancy word for on, or next to, and
"ablaze" is a poetic word for on fire, or with the power of flames.
....with all the forces of right and righteousness marshaled behind him.
"Righteousness" is another word for moral goodness, and
if forces are "marshaled," they are gathered together.
We certainly want to give you a fair hearing in this courtroom.
We dont want anything prejudicial to your client.
A "hearing" is another word for trial, or more generally, an opportunity to
argue ones case. If something is "prejudicial" to a client, it is unfair to
them, often by making the jury more likely to view the client negatively.
I have no serious objection to the honorary title of private.
A "private" is a low level person in the military.
It is certainly not everyday that a gentleman attains the
exalted position of temporary honorary colonel.
"To attain" a position or state is to reach it. "Exalted" is
an educated word that means of high level, rank or prestige.
Were supposed to be selecting jury members! The prosecution is denouncing
the defendant before the trial has even begun! :: Objection sustained.
"To denounce" a person is to severely criticize them. If an objection is
"sustained the judge agrees that the lawyers objections to the words or
tactics of the opposing side are inappropriate or not permitted in court.
Im pretty busy down at the feed store.
My wife tends to the religion for both of us.
A "feed store" is a store that sells food for farm animals.
"To tend to" something is to take care of it.
That is objected to; Its immaterial and argumentative. :: Objection sustained.
In law, if something is "immaterial," its not relevant, and if a word is
"argumentative," it is not permitted since it is only designed to cause an
emotional reaction such as anger, without helping the jury find the truth.
My worthy opponent from Chicago is cluttering
up the issue with hypothetical questions.
"To clutter up" an issue is to complicate it or make it more confusing
than is necessary. If a question is "hypothetical," it is asking about a
situation that does not really exist, but could exist in theory.
For your sake, Im trying to establish that hes not working hard at evolution.
"For your sake" is one way of saying "for you." In this
context, "to establish" a fact is to show or prove it.
Oh, conform, conform! What do you want to do? Run the jury through a meat grinder
and have them all come out the same? Take a box seat there, Mr. Sellers.
"To conform" is to try and act like everyone else. A "meat grinder" turns big
pieces of meat into small ones. A "box seat" is a seat in the box where the
jury sits (It is also a very good seat in a sports arena or concert hall).
Your honor, this is ludicrous!
An excellent word meaning totally ridiculous.
Gentlemen, youre both out of order. The
bench rules that the jury has been selected.
In a trial setting, if a lawyer is "out of order," they are talking when
they shouldnt be. "The bench" refers to the judge (though "the court"
is more common).
Due to excessive heat, court is adjourned until 10 oclock tomorrow morning.
"Excessive" is an important adjective meaning too much. If a
court is "adjourned," the trial is stopped until some time later.
There will be a prayer meeting tonight at the picnic grounds to pray for
justice and guidance. :: Your honor, I object to that commercial announcement.
"Guidance" is another word for general advice that helps people with
their lives. A "commercial announcement" is an advertisement for any
kind of product that is being sold.
Your honor, we want the learned counsel from the North to get every
fairness and consideration for this trial. We must not forget he is our guest.
"Learned" (pronounced learn-ed, and not like the past tense of to learn),
means educated. Here, "consideration" means reasonable opportunity.
Guest, hell, Im a lawyer in a courtroom!
A filler word to express frustration and similar emotion.
Stop using this courtroom as a platform for your obscene
ideas! Stop trying to dirty the minds of our young people!
A "platform" is a place, such as a stage, from which to speak. If something
is "obscene," it is considered very dirty, filthy or disgusting, and very often
has to do with sex.
My conduct in this courtroom is not under question, and certainly not by you!
Another word for behavior.
I dont swear just for the hell of it. Language is a poor enough
means of communication and there are damn few words anybody understands.
"To swear" means to use dirty words (such as fuck), though note it can also
mean to promise to do something. To do something "just for the hell of it" is
to do it for no particular reason. "Damn" is a filler word to express emotion
such as anger or frustration.
Henry and Matthew reflect on old times as Cates stays
in jail and Rachel faces the rage of her God-fearing father.
Well fix you, Cates! Well run you out of town!
In this case, "to fix" a person is an old, slangy way of saying to hurt them.
The Baltimore Herald is with you, right after the lynching.
A horrible verb! "To lynch" a person is to kill them by hanging them from
a tree after accusing them of a crime, but before a real trial is held.
Bert, youve got to call the whole thing off, right now!
"To call off" a planned event means to cancel it.
This is Rachel Brown. :: Were engaged.
If two people are "engaged," they have official plans to get married.
Theyre using you as a weapon against your own people!
A "weapon" is a gun, bomb or other tool that can be used to hurt or kill.
I tried to open the kids minds, I tried to give them
knowledge. Theyre using it as a stranglehold on me!
A "stranglehold" is a powerful force that chokes off the ability to breath
(It is literally a hold in wrestling, used around a persons neck).
Where do I finish? Dead with a couple medals on
my chest? Bert Cates, worlds biggest chump.
A "medal" is a small metal object that acknowledges a persons
great achievements. A "chump" is a fool who has been easily tricked.
Lets face it; To him Im a headline and to you Im a cause.
One way of saying "Lets at least admit to ourselves that..." Bert sees that
for Hornbeck, his trial is a great media story, and for Drummund, the trial
is a fight for principles such as freedom of speech and scientific progress.
These people are in a lean and hungry mood.
"Lean" means thin, or in this case, determined and perhaps angry.
You kill one of their fairy tale notions and theyll bring down the
wrath of God, Brady and the state legislature on you every time.
A "fairy tale" is a childs story with magical characters (though Hornbeck is
referring to the Bible). A "notion" is an idea. The "wrath" of a person is
their great anger or rage. The "legislature" is the political body that makes
the laws of a state.
Young lady, I know what Bert is going through.
"To go through" a difficult time is to experience it.
Its up to you, Cates. If you want, well change the plea and...
that is if you honestly believe the law is right and youre wrong.
If a decision is "up to" you, youre the one who gets to make it.
A "plea" is the declaration of being guilty or not guilty, made at a trial.
What kind of life could we have if I gave up now? Your
fathers kind---hallelujah and ignorance, here we come?
"To give up" is to surrender. "Hallelujah" is an ancient
religious word that Christians use to give thanks to God.
I have seen the alters to which they sacrifice their children to the Gods of science.
An "altar" is a raised table or structure for placing candles
or other objects to show respect for a religion or cause.
There isnt one state in the union where the evolutionists are in the majority.
In this context, a way of referring to the United States.
How do you account for the unfortunate
comment that your crusade has aroused...
"To account for" something is to try and explain it. A "crusade" is a great political
or spiritual movement, and "to arouse" great emotion is to cause it to happen.
The attacks upon me stem from a vociferous
minority that happen to control the press.
"To stem from" is a fancy way of saying to come from (A stem is the root of
a plant). "Vociferous" means extremely angry or with great and hostile energy.
"The press" is a common way of referring to the news media.
Dear Lord, dear father...behold thy grace. Amen.
In a religious context, "father is a way of referring to God. "To
behold" something is to look at it, and "thy" is a no longer used
word for "your." You should be familiar with "amen," which is an
ancient word that Christians use to end all prayers.
God may be a matter of indifference for the evolutionists
and the life beyond holds no charm for them....
If something is "a matter of indifference," to you, you dont care
about it. In this context, "the life beyond" refers to life after death
...but the mass of mankind will continue to worship.
Here, the "mass" refers to the great majority of common people,
and "to worship" is to pray to or admire with the greatest respect.
The hat with the feather; You used to wear it to all
the conventions and it was much too becoming.
A "convention" is a large meeting or conference of people involved in a
particular field, such as doctors or lawyers. If a piece of clothing is
"becoming," it makes the person wearing it look good.
How are you Sara? :: A little grayer, Henry.
Here, the color gray refers to ones hair, and thus "grayer" means older.
And you? :: A little grimmer.
If a person is feeling "grim," they are feeling sad, down or pessimistic.
He brings out the worst in me.
If a persons behavior "brings out the worst in" you, they cause
you to act badly yourself, perhaps out of anger or frustration.
Dont be cynical. I think every man longs to be his
brothers keeper, and to be cared for in return.
If a person is "cynical," they often do not believe what they are told
and look upon institutions such as religion and government with great
doubt and skepticism. "To long to" do something is to greatly desire to
do it. If you are your "brothers keeper," you accept the responsibility
of taking care of him.
It sounds more convincing coming from you.
If a persons words are "convincing," they are able to
change your mind or opinion about a subject.
What would you have been?. .. Your majestys loyal opposition.
"Your majesty" is how you address a king or queen, and a political partys
"loyal opposition" is the opposing party that has a long tradition of competing
against it in elections.
All those millions upon millions who find a
rallying point for their expression of Gods will.
A "rallying point" is an event that causes lots of people to come
together to fight for a cause. A persons "will" is their wish or desire.
The word tells us that the world was created in six days!
This is the way conservative or fundamentalist
Christians refer to the Bible.
In the beginning, the earth was without form
and void, and the Lord said, let there be light!
"Form" is shape, and if something is "void," it is empty.
On the 5th day, he filled the sea with fish and the air with fowl!
A "fowl" is a bird of any kind.
He blessed them all, but on the morning of the 6th day
...the Lord rose and a scowl lay across his face.
"To bless" a person (or animal) is to hope for Gods best wishes.
A "scowl" is a bitter or angry expression on a persons face.
Why was the Lord troubled?
If a person is "troubled," they are anxious, worried or disturbed.
The Lord looked at all his handiwork before
him and he said it was not enough.
"Handiwork" is the physical work that a person makes
with his own hands, such as furniture and tools.
Do we curse the man who denies the word? Do we call
down hellfire on the man who has sinned against the word?
Here, "to curse" a person is to speak angrily about them and perhaps even hope
for their punishment. "To deny" something is to claim it is not true (in this
case, the words of the Bible). "Hellfire" is the fire that awaits those who
go to hell (at least according to certain religious people!). "To sin" is to
do something immoral, of which God would not approve .
Oh Lord...strike down this sinner
as they did in the days of the Pharaohs.
"To strike down" a person is to hit them with great force or violence, perhaps
even killing them. The "Pharaohs" were the Kings or leaders of ancient Egypt.
Let him know the terror of thy sword!
A "sword" is a large knife or blade that is used as a weapon to kill people.
Let his soul for all eternity writhe in anguish and damnation!
"Eternity" means forever. "To writhe" means to move or twist on the
ground while in great or unbearable pain (a horrible verb!). "Anguish"
is great pain or suffering, and "damnation" is the state of being damned
or sent to hell, to suffer forever.
We ask the same curse for those who ask grace for this sinner...
though they be blood of my blood and flesh of my flesh.
In this context, a "curse" is a horrible fate or future of tragedy or
misery. Here, "grace" means forgiveness, and "flesh" is the skin and muscle
of a person (Reverend Brown is asking God to send his own daughter to hell
because she still loves Bertram Cates).
I know the great zeal of your faith that makes you utter this prayer, but
it is possible to be over zealous, to destroy that which you hope to save.
"Zeal" means great passion or energy, and to "utter" something is to
say it, often without thinking first. If a person is "over zealous,"
they have too much passion or emotion.
Remember the wisdom of Solomon in the Book of Proverbs;
He that troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind."
"Wisdom" is intelligence and good judgement, based on experience.
Solomon was a king mentioned in the Bible, and the "Book of Proverbs" is
a chapter in the Bible (A "proverb" is a common expression or metaphor).
The expression or proverb that follows, the title of this movie, appears to
say that if you cause harm to your own family, all that they will leave
behind for you is wind, and nothing else.
God has no wrath for the innocent, my dear.
"Wrath" is great anger or rage.
By the sight of that meal you packed away
tonight, Id say you havent changed in 40 years.
"To pack away" food is to eat a lot of it, and probably with great enjoyment.
How two people can start from the same point,
drift apart... :: Its the nature of the life process.
If two people "drift apart," they slowly but surely grow in different
directions, so they are very different from each other compared to when
they started out together. A "process" is the development over time of a
event or project, in this case of a trial.
All motion is relative. Maybe its you whove moved away by standing still.
"Motion" is the action of moving, and if two things are "relative,"
they are always seen in relation to each other (Einstein taught us this!).
If progress means abandoning God, the faith of our
fathers,,, :: I saw a demonstration of that faith tonight.
"To abandon" a person is to leave them, and in this case,
a "demonstration" is an example (as opposed to a protest).
Theyre driven to it because our faith was challenged.
If a person is "driven to" do something, they are emotionally
determined to do it, often because of the actions of others.
In this case, "faith" is simply religious beliefs.
Window shopping for heaven. :: Why do you want to
take it away from them? Its like a golden chalice of hope.
"To window shop" is to look at store windows, without actually buying
anything. A "chalice" is a drinking cup, often used in religious ceremonies.
I was about seven years old at the time and a great judge of rocking horses.
A "rocking horse" is a wood horse that children can rock back and forth on.
When the sun hit her stirrups, she was a dazzling sight to behold.
A "stirrup" is a metal object put on the side of a horse to help the rider
get on top. If something is "dazzling," it is wonderfully beautiful or amazing,
often filled with gorgeous lights. "To behold" something is to observe or view it.
But she was a weeks wages for my father, so Golden Dancer
and I always had a big plate glass window between us.
"Wages" refers to the money that workers earn.
Mom had skimped on the groceries and dad had worked nights for a month.
"To skimp" on groceries is to buy less in order to save money.
I jumped into the saddle and started to rock.
A "saddle" is the seat that a rider sits in, on top of a horse, and here,
"to rock" means to move back and forth in a rocking horse or chair.
It split in two!; The wood was rotten and the
whole thing was put together with spit and wax.
If something "splits in two," it breaks into two pieces. If wood is
"rotten," it has been eaten away by bugs or time and is no longer strong.
"Spit" is the saliva in your mouth, and "wax" is the substance that candles
are made of.
All shine and no substance, and thats how I feel about that
demonstration I saw tonight, Matt. All glitter and glamour.
"Shine" is brightness from light, and in this context, "substance" refers
to actual meaning, value or usefulness. "Glitter" is the act of shining with
bright and colorful lights, and "glamour" is a romantic or magical attractiveness
that is much loved in places like Hollywood.
As long as the prerequisite for that shining paradise is
ignorance, bigotry and hate, I say the hell with it.
A "prerequisite" is a requirement or something that must be done before
something else can happen (in this case, to get into heaven). "Bigotry" refers
to prejudice and hatred, especially against those of a different religion, race,
language, etc. "The hell with it" is a common way of expressing anger or
disgust with a situation.
Bertram, Darwin and evolution go on trial, and Rachel finds herself
on the witness stand, caught between her fiancée and father.
We need to keep an open mind on The Origin of Species.
Charles Darwins famous book on evolution, published in 1959
(The "origin" of something is where it comes from, and "species"
refers to the different divisions or classifications of animals).
And those little bugs got to be bigger bugs, and
they sprouted legs and they crawled upon the land.
"To sprout" legs is to grow them, and "to crawl" is
to move on all four hands and knees, like a baby.
Then comes the fishes and the reptiles and the mammals.
A "reptile" is an animal like a snake or lizard and a "mammal" is any animal
in which the mother gives birth to a live baby (and not an egg).
Along with dogs and the cattle in the field?
Another word for cows.
How does man come out of this slimy mess of
bugs and serpents, according to your professor?
If something is "slimy," its slippery unpleasant or even scary, like the
insides of an animal thats been run over. A "mess" is a dirty, offensive
or unorganized situation, place or condition. A "serpent" is a snake.
All this talk of slime and ooze...did Mr. Cates even make any reference to God?
"Ooze" is a soft and slimy substance, often found at the bottom of water.
To "make reference" to anything is to briefly mention it while talking
about other things.
The miracle he achieved in seven days as described in Genesis?
The first chapter of the Bible, which means "the beginning."
He is supposed to be submitting evidence to a jury.
"To submit" something is to officially present it, and "evidence"
is anything that can be used to prove a claim is true, in a trial.
He has been taught that he wiggled up like
an animal from the filth and muck below.
"To wiggle" is to move ones body back and forth like a snake or worm.
"Filth" is extreme dirtiness, and "muck" is the wet, slimy mud or filth.
I say these bible haters, these evolutionists, are brewers of poison.
"To brew" a liquid is to prepare it by boiling, often in such a way that it
turns into alcohol. "Poison" is any food or chemical that harms or kills.
And the legislators of this sovereign state have the wisdom to demand that
the sellers of this poison clearly label the product that they attempt to sell.
A "legislator" is a state law maker who works in the legislature.
If a state is "sovereign," it has a certain amount of independence.
"To label" a product is to show clearly, usually in writing, what it
is made of.
I say if this law is not upheld, this boy will become one of a
generation shorn of its fate by the teachings of Godless science.
"To uphold" a law is to agree that it is valid, or to enforce it. A persons
"fate" is their unavoidable future. "To shear" is take away by cutting ("shorn"
is the past participle!).
But if the full penalty of the law is meted out to Bertram Cates, the fate of the
whole world over, who are watching us here, and listening to our every word...
"To mete out" a penalty or punishment is to officially give it out.
...will rise up and call this courtroom blessed!
If a person or thing is "blessed," it has been given good fortune, perhaps by God.
Your witness, Sir.
In a trial, a "witness" is a person who tells what they know
or saw in front of the jury and others in the court room.
With all due respect to the court, Sir, I think the right to think is very much
on trial here, and it is fearfully in danger in the proceedings of this courtroom.
"With all due respect" is a common expression that shows respect while disagreeing
at the same time. For Drummond, the importance of this trial is summarized by
this sentence, which shows be believes basic American rights are at risk.
Hes faced with fine and imprisonment because
hes chosen to speak what he thinks.
A "fine" is an amount of money that must be paid to the
government as punishment for having committed a crime.
Will you please rephrase your question. :: Well, lets put it this way...
is all this fussnfeathers about evolution, is it going to hurt you any?
"To rephrase" a question is to ask it in different words. "To put" a sentence
in a certain way is to use those words that are chosen. "Fussnfeathers" is a
very old and fun way of referring to great excitement or controversy.
Did it do you any harm? Still feel reasonably fit?
"Harm" is injury or damage, and if a person
is "fit," they are in good physical shape.
No Sir, Im a lefty. :: A southpaw, huh?
A "lefty" is a person who is left-handed, and a "southpaw" is a much loved word
in the sport of baseball for a person who pitches or throws with their left hand.
Objection, this is an absurd piece of jacktatation!
"Absurd" is an excellent word meaning totally ridiculous, and "jactatation"
is an almost never used word for a false or misleading argument, or manipulation
of words or logic.
A specious or false premise, in this instance,
as to the murder of known or unknown persons.
"Specious" is an educated word meaning deceptive or misleading.
A "premise" is an assumption, which may or may not be true.
Ask if his faith in the holy scriptures has been shattered.
The "holy scriptures" are the individual books of the Bible.
If something is "shattered," it has been completely destroyed
and broken into lots of tiny pieces.
When I need your help. Colonel Brady, you
may rest assured that I will humbly ask for it.
If you tell a person they can "rest assured" that something will be done,
they can be certain it will be. If you ask for something "humbly," you ask
in a very modest and respectful manner.
Hes the only man I know who can strut sitting down.
"To strut" is to walk in a proud or overly confident manner.
Your pa is a farmer?...Do you think theres anything sinful
about a tractor because it isnt mentioned in the Bible?
"Pa" is a very old and rarely used word for father or dad. If something is
"sinful," it is considered to be immoral in the eyes of God. A "tractor"
is a large truck-like machine for digging up land on a farm.
Moses never made a phone call; Do you figure that
makes the telephone an instrument of the devil?
"Moses" was a major character in the Bible. "To figure" is a common slang word
meaning to think or believe. An "instrument" is a tool or device, and the "devil"
is the symbol of evil, often portrayed with horns growing out of his head.
The defense makes the same old error of all Godless men; He confuses
material things with the great spiritual values of the revealed word.
"Material things" are those that exist in the physical world, while
"spiritual" values refer to those things beyond the physical, including God,
religion, the soul, and life after death.
Why do you bewilder this child? Does right have no meaning to you, Sir?
"To bewilder" a person is to confuse them.
In this context, "right" is moral goodness.
Realizing that I may prejudice the case of client, I must
tell you that right has no meaning for me whatsoever.
"To prejudice" the legal case against a defendant is to act in such a way
that people will begin to unfairly think negatively about them. "Whatsoever"
is used for emphasis in negative sentences.
It is one of the peculiar imbecilities of our time that we place a grit of
morality upon human behavior, so that the action of every man must be measured...
"Peculiar" is a good word meaning odd or strange. An "imbecile" is a very
stupid person, so an "imbecility" is a stupid act or situation, though this
is rarely used. In this context, a "grit" is a tiny stone, or amount.
...against an arbitrary latitude of right and longitude
of wrong in exact minutes, degrees and seconds.
If something is "arbitrary," it is done randomly, for no particular reason.
"Latitude" is distance from the earths equator, and longitude is the
distance from Greenwich, England.
Why, you made the jury believe the obscenity was in their own minds!
The state of being "obscene," which in law is something
so disgusting, filthy or sexually graphic that is illegal.
Im not trying to get away with anything!
"To get away with" something illegal is to do it,
without being caught or punished for having done it.
I am simply trying to prevent the clock stoppers from dumping
a lot of medieval nonsense into the United States Constitution!
In this case, "clock stoppers" are people who are trying to stop the progress
of science or other things they think threaten their traditional religious
values. "To dump" something into the ocean is to throw it in. "Medieval" refers
to the time in Europe between about 400 and 1300, when most scientific and cultural
progress was stopped, in large part due to the influence of the Church. The US
"Constitution" is the highest law of the country, and contains, among other things
the guaranteed rights to freedom of speech and religion.
This is not a federal case, Colonel Drummund. ::
Well, dam it, you have to start from somewhere.
In law, a "federal case" is one which is decided by federal or national courts,
as opposed to the courts of one of the 50 states. "Dam it" is a crude but common
way of expressing anger.
Call Mrs. Rachel Brown to the stand!
In a courtroom, a "stand" is the seat where a witness sits when testifying.
Take it easy, son.
A very common way of telling a person to calm down.
Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give is the
truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God?
To do something "solemnly" is to do it with great seriousness and respect,
and in this context, "to swear" is to promise. These are the words that every
witness in a US court still says today!
He used to live next to the boarding house and he used
to come over and look through Berts microscope.
A "boarding house" is a home where lots of people live, usually temporarily.
A "microscope" is device that makes extremely tiny things like cells appear
much bigger than they really are, so they can be seen.
He got a cramp and drowned.
A "cramp" is a strong or sharp pain, often in your stomach.
"To drown" is to die under water from not being able to breathe.
At the funeral, pa preached that he didnt die in a state of
grace because his father didnt allow him to be baptized.
A "state of grace" is Rachels way of saying blessed by God.
"To baptize" a person is to cleanse them by dipping their head in
water (Baptism is considered an important ceremony for Christians).
Tommys soul was damned, rotting in hellfire.
Here, "to rot" is to waste away and die.
Religion is supposed to comfort people, not frighten them to death.
"To comfort" a person is to make them feel calm and
reassured, and "to frighten" a person is to scare them.
We are merely beginning to get some insight into
the experiences that sometimes lead a young man astray.
"Insight" is wisdom or the ability to see complicated things clearly.
If a person "goes astray," they do things that are considered wrong,
inappropriate or harmful, often to themselves.
Objection sustained. The jury is instructed to disregard the remarks of counsel.
"To disregard" a statement is to ignore it. A "remark" is a comment.
Objection! Hearsay evidence is not permissible.
In law, "hearsay evidence" is the testimony of one person saying what
another person supposedly said. If something is not "permissible," it is
not permitted or allowed.
Mr. Brady, I confided in you!
"To confide in" a person is to tell them very personal information
or secrets, on the assumption they will not tell others.
Rachel, you are testifying under oath. It is
unlawful to withhold pertinent information.
If a person testifies "under oath," they have legally promised to tell the truth
(and can be charged with the crime of perjury if it is discovered they have lied).
If information is "pertinent," it is relevant and important.
He said man created a vengeful God out of his
own bigotry, and the devil out of his own hell.
If a person is "vengeful," they have a desire to hurt those who have
hurt them. "Bigotry" is prejudice or hatred toward a particular group
of people, such as blacks or Jews.
Did he say there was nothing but a world of stars
and moons and galaxies and universal dust?
A "galaxy" is an astronomical word for a group
of solar systems that are grouped together.
What did he say about the holy state of matrimony?
"Matrimony" is the condition of being married.
You want the good people of this town to see what happened
to his brain so they can help him back to his senses, dont ya?
To help a person "back to their senses" is to help them get back their
intelligence or common sense. Note that "you"---->"ya" in rapid speech.
Under the circumstances, I believe the witness should be excused.
"Circumstances" are the facts or details of a situation. If a witness
is "excused," theyre no longer needed and are allowed to leave.
Do you have any objection to excusing the witness
from cross-examination at this time, subject to recall?
In a trial, "cross-examination" is when a lawyer for the other side has an
opportunity to question a witness. If a witness is "subject to recall," they
may be called back to testify at a later date.
They just pulled you apart like a plucked chicken.
If a chicken is "plucked," its feathers are pulled out, one by one.
She just handed your head on a silver platter.
A "platter" is a tray for serving food. This is Hornbecks way of
telling Cates that he was badly hurt by what Rachel said as a witness.
Dont tie my hands, son. :: Let her go, or Ill change my plea to guilty.
"To tie a persons hands" is to greatly limit their choices or options in
a difficult situation. A "plea" is the act of declaring oneself innocent
or guilty before a trial.
Frustrated by the judges refusal to let scientists
testify, Henry calls Matthew to the stand to explore
the relationship between religion and science.
May I have your autograph.
The signature of a person, usually asked of a famous person.
Certainly any testimony related to his so-called
infringement of the law must be admitted.
"So-called" is an excellent way of expressing cynicism or doubt as to the
validity or truth of the word that follows, or, another way of saying supposed.
Would the court rule out testimony that the so-called
murder weapon was incapable of firing a bullet?
"To rule out" evidence at a trial is to not allow it to be presented.
A "weapon" is any kind of device for hurting or killing, such as a gun.
I fail to grasp the learned counsels meaning.
In this context, "to grasp" is to understand (It usually means to hold).
How can they pass judgement if they dont know what its all about?
"To pass judgement" on something is to decide on
whether its moral or immoral, true or false, etc.
The very law were here to enforce excludes such testimony.
In this usage, "very" means exact or precise.
"To exclude" something is to keep it out.
They do not want such zoological hogwash slopping around the school rooms.
"Zoology" is the study of animals. "Hogwash" is an excellent little
word that means nonsense or bullshit. If something is "slopping around,"
it is flooding or spreading out in a particular enclosed place.
I refuse to allow these agnostic scientists to employ this courtroom as a sounding
board for a platform from which they shout their heiresses into the headlines.
An "agnostic" is a person who believes you cannot know if there is a God.
In this case, "to employ" a room is to use it, and a "sounding board" is a
process in which an idea is given to the public to see how it will be accepted.
A "platform" is a place or organization, such as a stage, from which ideas can be
spread to others, and a "heresy" is an opinion that goes against church teachings.
Does your honor deny in one breath the
existence of zoology, geology and archeology?
"Your honor" is how you address a judge in a court room. "To deny" the existence
of something is to claim it doesnt exist. "Geology" is the study of rocks, and
"archeology" is the study of ancient civilizations.
I call Dr. William Aronson, anthropologist, philosopher,
author and one of the most brilliant minds in the world today.
An "anthropologist" studies different cultures and peoples around the
world. "Brilliant" is an excellent word meaning extremely intelligent.
Their testimony is basic to the defense of my client.
"Testimony" is the spoken words of a witness on the stand in a trial.
In this context, "basic" means critical or extremely important.
It is as incontrovertible as geometry to
any enlightened community of minds.
If a statement is "incontrovertible," there is so much evidence for it
that it can not be reasonably denied. If a person is "enlightened,"
they have much intelligence or wisdom, and a good understanding of the
world around them. A persons "mind" is the part of their brain that
allows them to think and feel emotions.
Why do we need experts to question the
validity of a law that is already on the books?
The "validity" of something it its truthfulness, or in this case, its practical
effect. If a law is "on the books," it has already been passed and signed into
effect (though note that in the US, courts can declare a law invalid if it is
considered to go against the words of the US Constitution).
Is Mr. Drummond saying that this expression of honest emotion will
in any way influence the courts impartial administration of the law?
"Impartial" means fair, without bias or prejudice, and in this context,
the "administration" of the law is its interpretation and enforcement.
A wicked law destroys everything it touches, its upholders as well as its defiers.
If something is "wicked," it is extremely bad, immoral or evil. Those
who "uphold" the law enforce it or carry it out, and those who "defy"
the law dont believe in it and intentionally break it.
Soon you may ban books and newspapers and
soon you may turn Catholic against Protestant.
"To ban" a book is to make it illegal. "Catholic" and "Protestant"
refer to the two biggest branches or divisions of Christianity.
Fanaticism and ignorance is forever busy, and needs feeding.
An important word that refers to the over enthusiasm and
uncritical or ignorant devotion to a political or religious cause
(A fanatic is a dangerous person!)
Soon well be marching backward to the 16th century, where bigots burned
the man who dared bring enlightenment and intelligence to the human mind.
"Enlightenment" is the state of bringing critical thought and wisdom
while seeking truth around you (It is the opposite of fanaticism!).
I order you to show cause tomorrow at 10AM why
you should not be held in contempt of this court.
In law, "to show cause" means to officially explain or justify your actions.
If a person is accused of being "in contempt of court," they are officially
charged with disobeying or disrespecting the judge, and as such, they can be
fined or put in jail (To show contempt toward a person is to look down on them
with great scorn or disrespect).
In the meanwhile, I order that you be held in
the custody of the bailiff. Bail is fixed at $2,000.
If you are in a persons "custody," they are physically and legally
responsible for you. A "bailiff" is a clerk in a court room who works for
the judge, and "bail" is the amount of money the judge demands be paid as
security before a person who is charged with a crime can be released.
Your honor, my paper will post such a bond.
"To post bond" is to pay the required bail money (The idea of bail
is to make sure the accused does not run away before facing trial).
Can you provide authorization to make such
a commitment for your employer.
In this case, to "provide authorization" is to give legal assurance.
Until then, Mr. Drummund can avail
himself of our municipal accommodations.
"To avail oneself" of something is a fancy way of saying to use it. "Municipal
accommodations" usually refer to city hotels and other places to sleep, though
here its the judges way of referring to he local jail.
Ill put up my farm for Mr. Drummund. :: We have
no way of ascertaining the value of your farm.
In this context, "to put up" a farm is to agree to pay a bond by
offering the value of the farm as security. "To ascertain" is find
out or learn with certainty.
He has considerably more equity in it than that.
"Equity" is the amount of money that a property is worth beyond what
the property owner owes the bank on their mortgage. In the US, people
love to think about the equity they have in their houses!
Court will adjourn and reconvene at 10AM tomorrow.
If a court adjourns," the trial stops for a break or for the rest
of the day. When it "reconvenes," it starts again after that break.
"Well hang Burt Cates to a sour apple tree, our
Lord is marching on! Glory, glory, hallelujah" [Song]
"To hang" a person is to kill them by putting a rope around their neck and
having them hang from a tree or other object. "Hallelujah" is an ancient word
that is used to thank God.
Trick or treat!
The words used by children to ask for candy during the Halloween holiday.
A "trick" is something designed to fool a person, and a "treat" is usually
some candy or other sweet food.
Hooligans of the world, unite! You have nothing to burn but your intellectuals.
A "hooligan" is a violent person or bully who is always causing trouble.
"To unite" is to come together, and an "intellectual" is an educated person
who writes about or thinks seriously about various issues, from politics to
religion (The famous communist line was "Workers of the world unite; You have
nothing to lose but your chains ").
It looks like youre going out in a blaze of glory, counselor.
"To go out in blaze of glory" is to lose the fight, but to do so with great
noise and honor in a way that people notice and perhaps admire (A blaze is a
flame or fire). "Counselor" is a formal way of addressing a lawyer.
Youll be setting man against man, creed against creed, ad nauseum.
"To set" one person against another is to get them to hate or even fight
each other. A persons "creed" is their religious belief, and "ad nauseum"
means excessively, or to the point where it makes you sick.
Darwin was wrong. Man is still an ape, his creed still a totem pole.
A tall pole with the faces of Gods and animals carved into it, which often
serve as a religious symbol for native people, such as American Indians.
When he couldnt reach them, he decided they were groceries
belonging to a bigger creature, and thats how Jehovah was born.
A "creature" is a big animal or monster. "Jehovah"
is an ancient Jewish or Hebrew word for God.
I wish I had your worms eye view of history.
A "worms eye view" of history is to see history go by from the point of
view of a worm, which is a tiny narrow animal that crawls on the ground
(the more common expression is a "Gods eye view
Why dont you take your blinders off;
Dont you know that the future is obsolete?
"Blinders" are two flap-like devices that are put on a horses face to prevent
it from looking at objects to its side. If something is "obsolete," its no longer
useful, often because something better has been invented.
You think man still has a noble destiny. Well, I tell you hes already started
on the backward march to the salt-filled and stupid sea from which he came.
"Noble" means honorable, and a persons "destiny" is
their future or fate, from which they can not escape.
Any remarks leading up the contempt citation I regret very much.
A "remark" is a statement, and here, the "contempt citation" is the official
notice or ticket charging Drummund with being in contempt of court.
Im very sorry for any remarks that were made in the heat of the moment.
To do something "in the heat of the moment" is to do it
without thinking about it before, just out of sudden emotion.
I feel no animosity toward learned counsel from Chicago.
He is well known to have ridden hobby horses before.
"Animosity" is anger or hatred. A "hobby horse" is an interesting expression for
a subject or cause that a person is constantly thinking about or obsessed with.
We commend him to learn the words of he who said,
"If you thirst, come on to me, and I will give you light."
In this context, "to commend" a person is to strongly advise them to
do something (It also means to compliment or praise them for doing it).
If it please the court, Id like to withdraw my withdraw
and continue as counsel for Bertram Cates.
"If it please the court" is a formal way of asking a judge if something is acceptable.
"To withdraw" from a case is to quit it, but to withdraw something is to take it back.
I call to the stand one of the worlds foremost experts on the holy
Bible, Mathew Harrison Brady. :: Your honor, this is preposterous!
"To call to the stand" a witness is to officially ask them to testify at a trial.
"Foremost" means one of the most important or best known. "Preposterous" is an
excellent adjective meaning totally ridiculous.
Its highly unorthodox; Ive never known an instance
when the defense called the prosecuting attorney.
If something is "unorthodox," it is very unusual, rarely
done, or considered quite strange or not normal.
I am right in calling upon you as an authority on the Holy Bible?
An "authority" on a subject is an expert on it.
It is not boastful to say that I have studied the Bible as much as any
layman, and I have tried to live according to its precepts. :: Bully for you!
To be "boastful" is to brag or speak highly of your own accomplishments (its
the opposite of being modest). A "layman" is a person who is not an expert in
a particular field, or in the right context, not a member of the church clergy.
The "precepts" of the Bible are its most important moral teachings. "Bully for you"
is an old British way of saying "Good for you!
I suppose you can quote me chapter and
verse right through the King James version.
"To quote" a person is to tell the exact words that they used. "Chapter and verse"
refers to the individual chapters and verses, or subheadings of a chapter, within a
book. The "King James version" of the Bible is the best known version in English,
named after the 17th century English King.
I am not the least bit interested in the hypotheses of that book.
A "hypothesis" is an educated guess, often based on scientific observation.
How in perdition do you have the gall to whoop up this
war about something you dont know anything about?!
"Perdition" is total destruction or damnation, but "how in perdition" is no
longer used. "Gall" is great nerve or boldness, or perhaps an outrageous attitude
that offends people. "To whoop up" emotion is to cause it, or to try and make it
greater than it already it is.
How can you be so cocksure that the body of scientific knowledge
...is any way irreconcilable with the book of Genesis?
To be "cocksure" about something is to be certain about it. If two ideas are
"irreconcilable," they cant both be right, or they cant be put together.
The "book of Genesis" is the first chapter of the Bible, that talks about how
God created the universe.
You will confine your questions to the Bible.
"To confine" yourself to a subject is to limit yourself to that subject.
You believe every word in the Bible should be taken literally?
"To take literally" the words of a book is to believe every word
is actually true, and describes what really happened.
You figure that really happened? :: The
Bible does not say whale, it says big fish.
A common slang word meaning to think or believe.
Thats a pretty neat trick. :: I do not question or scoff
at the miracles of the Lord, as do ye of little faith.
In this case, a "trick" is an action that seems to be magical, or go against
the laws of science. "To scoff" at a person is to look down on them with contempt
or scorn, or to not take them seriously. "Ye" meant "you" in the days of Shakespeare.
Did you ever ponder what would actually happen to the earth if
the sun stood still? :: You can testify to that if I get you on the stand.
"To ponder" is to think about or consider.
I have faith in the Bible. :: You dont have much faith in the solar system.
The "solar system" refers to our sun and the nine planets that circle it.
The earth stopped spinning on its axis, continents toppled over one another...
If a planet "spins on its axis," it turns and turns in circles, around the
same imaginary line that can be drawn right through the middle of it. "To topple"
is to fall over, often violently and with a sudden movement.
...mountains flew into space and the earth
shriveled to a cinder and crashed into the sun.
"To shrivel" is to become very small and wrinkled, and
a "cinder" is a piece of burnt material or ash after fire.
How come they missed that little tidbit of doom? Or dont you believe in
natural law? Would you bar Copernicus from the classroom along with Darwin?
A "tidbit" is a tiny piece of information, and "doom" refers to complete
destruction or death. "Natural law" can be a way of referring to the natural
laws of science. Copernicus was the 16th century astronomer who was the first
to say that the sun, not earth, was the center of the universe.
You apostles of science, for all your supposed
wisdom, fail to grasp this simple fact.
An "apostle" is a close follower or supporter,
and in this context, "to grasp" is to understand.
And Cain knew his wife? Where the hell did she come from?
"The hell" is a common filler added to Wh questions to
express anger, frustration and other similar emotion.
You figured somebody else pulled another
creation in the next country somewhere?
In this case, "to pull" is to make or do, and "creation" refers
to the creation of the universe by God, as told in the Bible?
It frightens me to think of the state of learning
in the world if everybody had your driving curiosity.
"To frighten" a person is to scare them, and "driving curiosity" is a
passionate desire to learn and know what is going on around you
(In this case, Drummund is being sarcastic, or not being serious).
This book goes into a lot of begats.
In the Bible, the verb "begat" means to reproduce or
lead to the birth of, but this is no longer used today.
And so on and so on. Are these people important people?
A common way of saying "and things continued
just like before, over and over again."
In other words, all these folks were conceived and brought
forth by the normal scientific function known as sex.
"Folks" is a common word for people. A person is "conceived" when a sperm and
egg join together after sex, and they are "brought forth" when they are born
(though this last expression is never used).
All these holy people got themselves begat through original sin?
In the Bible, "original sin" is considered a crime against God
that all people are guilty of just because they are human.
What has this got to do with the State versus Bertram Cates?
"Versus" means against, and when spelled vs., it is
used as part of the title for every trial or legal case.
The court must be satisfied that this line of
reasoning has some bearing on the case.
A "line of reasoning" is a series of questions or statements designed to prove
a particular point or fact. To have a "bearing on" a case is to be relevant to it,
or to effect or influence it.
I am willing to sit here and endure Mr. Drummonds sneering and his disrespect,
for he is pleading the case of the prosecution, for his contempt of all that is holy.
"To endure" something is to accept it or live through it, even if it is
unpleasant. "To sneer" at a person to give them an angry or contemptuous look.
"Contempt" is the act of looking down on someone as being stupid or inferior
in some way. If something is "holy," it is sacred or is believed to have been
blessed by God.
I object! On what grounds?
In this case, a word for reason or logic.
In the individual human mind and in a childs power to master the multiplication
table, there is more sanctity than all your holy holies and Josanas!
"To master" a subject is to become expert at it. The "multiplication table"
shows what every number up to 9 multiplied by another up to 9 equals.
"Sanctity" is another word for holiness.
An idea is a greater monument than a cathedral, and the advance of
human knowledge is a greater miracle
.than the parting of the waters.
A "monument" is a giant building or other structure that honors a person
or idea. A "cathedral" is a huge church, and "the parting of the waters" refers
to the story in the Bible when the water in the Red Sea was parted or separated
in order to allow the Jews of ancient Egypt to escape.
Are we to forego all this progress because
Mr. Brady now frightens us with a fable?
"To forego" something is to do without it, and a "fable"
is a childrens story with magical animals and characters.
Progress has never been a bargain; You have to pay for it!
A "bargain" is a good product that is sold for
a price that is much less than it could be sold for.
Why do you deny the one faculty of man that
raises him above all the other creatures of the earth?
In this context, a "faculty" is a skill or ability.
The mosquito is more prolific, even the simple sponge is more durable.
If an animal is "prolific," it reproduces quickly. A "sponge" is a tiny
and simple animal that lives under water, and something that is "durable"
is strong and lasts a long time.
Do you think a man should have the same privilege as a sponge?
A "privilege" is a right or opportunity that is given by others.
He is deluded!
If a person is "deluded," they do not have a strong sense of
reality, but believe in things that cant possibly be true
I am more interested in the rock of ages than the age of rocks.
In the Bible, the "rock of ages" refers to Jesus and God.
You managed to sneak in some of that scientific testimony after all.
"To sneak in" something is to secretly or quickly get
it in, before anyone notices or has time to object.
These are the remains of a marine pre-historic creature found
in this very county which lived here millions of years ago...
The "remains" of an animal are what is left of it, perhaps millions of years
after it has died. A "county" is an administrative unit of a state, which is
usually physically bigger than a city.
...when these very mountain ranges were submerged in water.
A "range" of mountains is a series of several, one next to the other.
If a mountain is "submerged" in water, it is totally covered by water.
Your professor is a little mixed up on his dates;
That rock is not more than 6,000 years old.
If a person is "mixed up," they are confused by the facts.
A fine Biblical scholar, Bishop Usher, has determined for us the
exact date and hour of the creation. It occurred in the year 4004 BC.
A "scholar" is a person who seriously studies or researches a subject.
In this context, "the creation" is the story in the Bible in which God
creates the universe, and "BC" means before Christ (as opposed to AD, which
means after the death of Christ).
It is a computation that said bishop arrived at by the
ages of the prophets as set down in the Old Testament.
A "computation" is a mathematical calculation. In this context, "said" means
"this just mentioned," and a "bishop" is an official in the church. A "prophet"
is a person who speaks to God or predicts the future based on talks with God.
"The Old Testament" is the first part of the Bible, before the arrival of Jesus
(which is described in The New Testament).
Then you interpret!
.The first day could
have been a day if indeterminate length!
"To interpret" a text is to explain it, or to try and understand what
it is saying. If the length of a day is "indeterminate," it is not known.
It is the revealed word of the almighty God!
Another word for all powerful.
So you, through oratory, the legislature or whatever,
pass on Gods orders to the rest of the world!
"Oratory" is the art of public speaking.
Each man is a free agent! :: Then what is Bertrand Cates doing in a Hillsboro jail?!
In philosophy, if a person is a "free agent," they are free to act
for themselves, but must accept the results of their actions.
Suppose that Mr. Cates had the influence and the lung power to railroad through
the legislature a law saying only Darwin could be taught in the schools?
"Suppose" is a way of saying "Imagine if
" In this case, "lung power" is
the ability to speak loudly (a persons lungs are the organs in the chest through
which they breathe). "To railroad through" a law is to put extreme pressure on
people in the legislature to pass it.
The gospel according to Brady!
The words of the Bible, especially those that deal with Jesus
(More generally, it means words of ultimate religious truth).
Suppose a little human being, a Cates or a Darwin,
had the audacity to think God might whisper to him!
"Audacity" is an excellent word that means boldness, nerve or gall.
Must a man go to prison because he differs with a self-appointed prophet?
"To differ" with a person is to disagree with them.
We will slip you in neatly between Numbers and Deutotonermy.
These are two chapters in the Bible.
The trial ends, but the law against teaching evolution is
still to be challenged, and the battle over values continues...
I want the whole world to know that Matthew Brady is a fake!
A good word for a person who pretends to be what they are not.
He encouraged me to open up my heart to him
and then he twisted my words. He tricked me!
"To open up your heart" to a person is to tell them your secrets, or to
confide in them. "To twist" a persons words is to change or bend them so
that you tell others they said words that in fact they did not say. "To trick"
a person is to fool or manipulate them.
Everything he stands for must be evil too.
"To stand for" something is to represent or symbolize it.
What do you understand of the sum of a mans life? :: He betrayed me!
"The sum" of a persons life is the total and complete experience, from their
birth onward. "To betray" a person is to turn against them in time of great need,
or to turn them over to their enemies.
You see my husband as a saint, and then you see him as the devil.
A "saint" is a person who is considered
to have lived a life of pure goodness.
Ive watched him carry the burdens of people like you.
A "burden" is a big or troubling responsibility.
You never sacrificed your principles just to win.
A persons "principles" are their most important moral beliefs.
And theyll topple it the minute they find a flaw in it.
"To topple" something is to push it over or down,
and a "flaw" is a small imperfection, defect or weakness.
I messed things up pretty badly for us, didnt I?
"To mess up" a situation is to make it worse or to create
problems where perhaps there were none before.
We got a direct line to WGN Chicago. As soon as
the jury returns, well broadcast the verdict.
"WGN" are the letters of a radio station (In the US, radio and TV stations
are given three or four letters for identification). In a trial, "the verdict"
is the decision of the jury as to whether a defendant is guilty or not guilty.
This is going to be a barren source of amusement.
"Barren" means not fertile or productive,
and "amusement" is fun or entertainment..
Please stand by
The words a radio announcer tells their audience while waiting for news.
Ive been on the phone to the Lieutenant Governor.
In a state, a "Lieutenant Governor" is the
second highest official in the government.
The boys in the capital seem to think it wouldnt
do any harm to just let the whole thing simmer down.
The "capital" of a state or nation is where the government is located.
"Harm" is damage or injury. If a situation "simmers down," it becomes
calmer and less emotionally charged.
I have an obligation to the law. :: Dont forget that November is not too far off.
An "obligation" is a duty to do something. Note the second sentence refers to the fact
that elections in the US are in November (and in many states, state judges are elected).
The verdict of the jury is unanimous.
If a decision is "unanimous," then every person voted the exact
same way (In a criminal trial, a guilty verdict must be unanimous).
The profound repercussions of what has happened
in this courtroom can be known only in the future.
"Profound" is deeply important, and "repercussions"
is another word for consequences or results.
This court is still in session.
If a court is "in session," it is still officially conducting the trial.
The prisoner will rise to hear the sentence of this court.
"The sentence" of a court is the punishment that is
given to a person who has been convicted of a crime.
I dont have the eloquence of some of the men youve heard in the last few days.
"Eloquence" is the ability to speak clearly and
with great intelligence, wisdom or insight.
Ive been convicted of violating an unjust law.
If a person is "convicted," they are found guilty. "To violate"
a law is to break it, and if a law is "unjust," it is unfair or immoral.
There is no precedent to guide the bench before passing sentence.
"Precedent" refers to what others have done in a same or similar situation.
"The bench" is one way of referring to the judge, and if a judge "passes
sentence," he announces what the punishment will be.
The bench deems it proper to sentence Bertram Cotes to pay a fine of $100.
"To deem" is to believe (though this is rare),
and "proper" means appropriate or correct.
The prosecution takes exception. Why, the issues are so titanic, the court must
mete out a more drastic punishment, to make an example of this transgressor!
"To take exception to" an action is to strongly disapprove of it. If an issue
is "titanic," it is extremely big or important. "To mete out" punishment is to
give it out or order it. "Drastic" means extreme, and "to make an example" of
a person is to punish them in such a way that others will notice and not do
the same thing. A "transgressor" is a person who breaks the law.
We are going to appeal this decision to the state Supreme Court.
"To appeal" a legal decision is to officially ask a higher
court to change the decision of the jury or lower court.
I declare this court adjourned.
If a court is "adjourned" it is finished for the day.
Colonel Drummonds point of procedure is well taken.
In law, a "point of procedure" refers to how a trial is run by the judge.
We have seen vindicated the faith of our fathers!
If a person or belief is "vindicated," it is shown to be correct or justified.
He died of a broken belly.
A persons stomach.
Can I quote you in the obituary? :: Write anything you please.
An "obituary" is the brief summary of a persons life that is printed
in a newspaper after they die. In this context, "please" means want.
You know that fits!; He delivered his own obituary.
Here, "to fit" means to make sense.
Were growing an odd crop of agnostics this year.
A "crop" is a food that is planted, such as corn or apples. "Agnostic"
are people who believe you cannot know if there is a God.
You never put a noun against a verb except to blow up something.
"To blow up" something is to explode or destroy it.
What am I accused of? :: Contempt of
conscience, sentimentality in the first degree.
In this context, a persons "conscience" is their sense of responsibility
or guilt if they do something wrong. "Sentimentality" is the state of being
emotional about romance, people or the past, instead of being rational.
Lets leave the lamentations to the illiterate.
A "lamentation" is an expression of deep regret or sadness.
If a person is "illiterate," they dont know how to read.
What is this? Be kind to bigots week? Why should we weep for him?
To be "kind" to a person is to treat them nicely or gently. A "bigot" is a
person who hates those from different races, nationalities, etc. "To weep" is
to cry with great sadness.
That bible-breathing bunko artist.
A "bunko artist" is a con man, or a person who is
always trying to fool people into giving up their money.
You hypocrite, you fraud! The atheist who believes in God!
A "hypocrite" is a person who does not live up to the moral principles
that they claim to believe in. A "fraud" is a person who is a fake, or is
not who they claim to be.
Everythings grist for your mill, isnt it?
If something is "grist for the mill," it is material that can be written
about or discussed ("Grist" is a type of grain, and a "mill" is where wheat
or other grains are turned into bread).
Inherit the Wind
Some Potential Questions for ESL Class Discussion
1. How are the cultural and religious issues that were raised in the monkey trial still
alive today in the United States? Are there similar cultural tensions in your own country?
2. Are religion and science always opposed to each other?
3. Was Henry Drummund against religion, or just
the law that Cates broke? What about E.K. Hornbeck?
4. Is it hard for you to see how Drummond
and Brady could have been good friends?
5. If you had been Cates, would you have also knowingly broken the law?
6. Years after the Scopes trial, the US Supreme Court declared that religious
views of how the universe began (such as creation in the Christian Bible) could
not be taught in public schools; Is this as bad as not allowing the teaching of
evolution, or do you think there is a logical reason for why this makes sense?
7. Was Brady an extremist? Was Reverend Brown?
8. What did you like or not like about this movie?